Mental retardation is a developmental impairment that first appears in children under the age of 18. Mental retardation starts in childhood or adolescence prior to the age of 18. A diagnosis of mental retardation is just made if a person has an intellectual performance level well below average, as well as important limitations in two or more flexible skill areas. Mental retardation is described as an IQ score below 70-75. Signs of mental retardation might seem at birth or later in childhood. Some cases of mild mental retardation aren’t diagnosed before the kid enters preschool or kindergarten. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision, which will be the analytical standard for mental wellness care professionals in the US, classifies four distinct levels of mental retardation: mild, reasonable, serious, and profound.
Their retardation is frequently caused by an accompanying neurological disorder. The American Association on Mental Retardation is promoting another broadly recognized diagnostic classification system for mental retardation. The frequency of mental retardation in North America is just a matter of heated debate. The 3 most common reasons for mental retardation, accounting for about 30% of cases, are Down syndrome, fragile X, and fetal alcohol syndrome. Low IQ scores and restrictions in adaptive capabilities are the characteristics of mental retardation. If retardation is due to chromosomal or other genetic problems, it is usually apparent from infancy. If retardation is due to childhood diseases or injuries, learning and adaptive skills which were once easy might suddenly become impossible or difficult to master.
In about 40% of cases, the main cause of mental retardation can’t be found. Mental retardation may be due to an inherited genetic abnormality, like fragile X syndrome. Fragile X, a defect in the chromosome that establishes gender, is the most typical familial cause of mental retardation. Single gene defects like phenylketonuria along with other inborn errors of metabolic process can also cause mental retardation if they aren’t discovered and treated early. Hyperthyroidism, whooping cough, chickenpox, measles, and Hib disease can cause mental retardation if they aren’t treated adequately. An infection of the membrane addressing the mind or an irritation of the mind itself may cause swelling that in turn can cause brain harm and mental retardation. Traumatic brain injury the result of a setback to the mind or by violent shaking of the body upper part can also cause brain harm and mental retardation in children. Exposure to lead or mercury might also cause mental retardation.